While some argue that Latinas arechoosing lower-paid professions, further education isn’t a panacea, as shown in Figure A. Regardless of their level of educational attainment or their occupation, Latinas are paid less than their white male counterparts. AdditionalEPI research on the Hispanic-white wage gapincludes analysis of immigrant status and country of origin. Looking at only full-time workers in a regression framework, Marie T. Mora and Alberto Dávila find that Latina workers are paid 67 percent on the white non-Hispanic male dollar . Accounting for immigrant status, the pay penalty improves slightly to 30 percent and is wider among first generation immigrants than second or third or higher generation .
The overwhelming majority of Guatemalans are the product of varying degrees of admixture between European ethnic groups and the indigenous peoples of the Americas, known as Amerindians. Guatemalans are also colloquially nicknamed Chapines in otherSpanish-speaking countries of Hispanic America.
The study was approved by, and conducted in compliance with, the institutional review board at a large southeastern university. We also appreciate all the support from the Latina women in the program. An additional methodological limitation was that our comparison intervention also focused on HIV, rather than serving as a true placebo to guard against Hawthorne effects.
Why Become Part Of Our Latina Community?
The heterogeneity of people who are Hispanic and Latinos, who are comprised of a variety of ethnic backgrounds such as Native American, African and Spanish, makes identifying mental health needs a challenging but rewarding ordeal. The National Alliance on Mental Health reported that one in five Latinx people suffer from mental illness, making culturally competent outreach and treatment an urgent issue2. Like the parent study, the current study is guided by Bogenschneider’s ecological risk/protective model and Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory of human development.
During the period of the Spanish Empire from 1492 and 1898, many people migrated from Spain to the conquered lands. The Spaniards brought with them the Castilian language and culture, and in this process that lasted several centuries, created a global empire with a diverse population. The Hispanic Society of America is dedicated to the study of the arts and cultures of Spain, Portugal, and Latin America. While originally the term referred primarily to the Hispanos of New Mexico within the United States, today, organizations in the country use the term as a broad catchall to refer to persons with a historical and cultural relationship with Spain regardless of race and ethnicity. The United States Census Bureau uses the ethnonyms Hispanic or Latino to refer to a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race and states that Hispanics or Latinos can be of any race, any ancestry, any ethnicity.
Post-9/11, Chicana/o consciousness became increasingly transnational, informed by and expanding upon earlier traditions of anti-imperialism and Third World solidarity in the Chicano Movement. In the 2010s, there was a resurgence of Chicana/o/x and Xicana/o/x identity, centered on ethnic pride, Indigenous consciousness, cultural expression, defense of immigrants, and the rights of women and queer Latino people; some http://xedap2.nrglobal.top/unknown-factual-statements-about-costa-rica-women-made-known/ even referred to it as a ‘renaissance’. Recently, some have argued that Xicana/o/x identity is elastic enough to include people beyond those of Mexican origin, indicating a continued emphasis on deconstructing borders and emphasizing transnationality. It is difficult to know the exact number of Latino Americans self-identifying as Mestizo, in part because “Mestizo” is not an official racial category in the Census.
Findings show that this could be due to the added responsibilities that come with being a mother and working multiple jobs. Another factor regarding employment includes the frustration and depression that arises from Latinx women being overqualified for the jobs they work, due to racial and gender discrimination5. 15 was established at this time of the year to commemorate Hispanic nations gaining independence from Spain. The month has now grown to incorporate Latinos, which includes Hispanics and non-Spanish speaking south and central American countries such as Brazil. Latinx people have become the largest minority group in the United States, making up about 17 percent of the population1.
Compared to all Latino groups, whites, and Asians, stateside Puerto Rican women came closer to achieving parity in income to the men of their own racial-ethnic group. In addition, stateside Puerto Rican women had incomes that were 82.3 percent that of white women, while stateside Puerto Rican men had incomes that were only 64.0 percent that of white men. These shifts in the relative sizes of Latino populations have also changed the role of the stateside Puerto Rican community. Thus, many long-established Puerto Rican institutions have had to revise their missions to provide services and advocacy on behalf of non-Puerto Rican Latinos. New York City was the center of the stateside Puerto Rican community for most of the 20th century.
When it comes to the preference of “Latino” or “Hispanic”, the younger subgroup is more likely to state that it does not matter. If they do have a preference, both groups prefer the term “Hispanic” rather than “Latino”.
- The city of Arequipa in the south of Peru displays the majority of Spanish descendants in the south.
- The African descendants brought their own dances and drumming music style, creating some instruments like the “Cajon” and some culinary art characterized by their delicious taste.
- The Afro-Peruvian population is concentrated mostly in coastal cities south of Lima, such as those found in the Ica Region, in cities like Cañete, Chincha, Ica, Nazca and Acarí in the border with the Arequipa Region.
- The Spaniards brought 500 Africans from Guinea as part of the troops for the Conquista by 1531.
- Today also mulatos and zambos constitute an important part of the population as well, especially in Piura, Tumbes, Lambayeque, Lima and Ica regions.
Census Bureau as Cuban (32.6%), Other Latino (23.5%), Puerto Rican (3.7%), and Mexican (1.9%). Thus, the current sample was representative of Latinas living in Miami-Dade County, but not of the larger U.S. Future studies are needed with nationally representative samples to validate and enhance the generalizability of results. Furthermore, women more frequently agreed with disease attributions about addiction when they were more proficient in Spanish. Thus, Latinas in the U.S. who have not adopted the receiving culture and who have retained their heritage culture seem to endorse the spiritual and disease models of addiction more than those who do adopt U.S. culture.
The Garífuna, who are descended primarily from Black Africans who lived with and intermarried with indigenous peoples from St. Vincent, live mainly in Livingston and Puerto Barrios. Those communities have other blacks and mulattos descended from banana workers. There is also a growing Korean community in Guatemala City and in nearby Mixco, currently numbering about 50,000. Guatemala’s German population is credited with bringing the tradition of a Christmas tree to the country. Data on race and the Hispanic population from the 2010, 2000, and 1990 decennial censuses also are available.
We used community-based participatory research approaches to engage members of the ethnically diverse Latina community at all stages of the research. They participated in conceptualizing the study aims, adapting the HIV intervention materials, and developing assessment measures and recruitment strategies. The outreach workers were involved in identifying and selecting recruitment sites, conceptualizing recruitment strategies, developing culturally appropriate and appealing recruitment materials , and disseminating recruitment materials. Although Latina women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS, they remain an understudied and underserved population.
Much of these differences are grounded in the presence of occupational segregation. Latina workers are far more likely to be found in certain low-wage professions than white men are (and less common in high-wage professions). But, even in professions with more Latina workers, they still are paid less on average than their white male colleagues.Figure Bshows the average wages of Hispanic women and white non-Hispanic men in the 10 most common occupations for Latinas.
According to the 2010 census, there are over 1 million Mexican-Americans in Colorado. Over one-third of the city’s population is Mexican-American or Hispanic/Latino, as well as approximately one-fourth of the entire Denver Metropolitan area. About 17% of the cities population is foreign born, mostly from Latin America. San Jose, California – Nearly one-third of the city’s population is Mexican-American or of Hispanic origin; San Jose has the largest Mexican-American population within the Bay Area. La Puente, California – about two-thirds are of Mexican ancestry or Hispanic, one of the largest Hispanic (in percentage, the most Mexican-American community) populations in California.
6 These rates are not only due to racial and gender discrimination, but are also a result of Latinx cultural values such familisimo and marianismo7. Familisimo, although it emphasizes a strong family unit, can inhibit Latina teenagers from embracing their own unique independent identity8. Marianismo, rooted in Catholicism’s admiration of the Virgin Mary, is the belief that women must be pure, self sacrificing, pleasant, nurturing and demure9. Teenage Latinas are often met with pressure to meet these cultural standards, and this pressure can lead to development of anxiety and depression. These cultural factors do not favor reaching out for mental health assistance, making addressing the mental health concerns difficult.
Enumerators were instructed to no longer use the “Mulatto” classification. Instead, they were given special instructions for reporting the race of interracial persons. A person with both white and black ancestry (termed “blood”) was to be recorded as “Negro,” no matter the fraction of that lineage (the “one-drop rule”). A person of mixed black and American Indian ancestry was also to be recorded as “Neg” (for “Negro”) unless he was considered to be “predominantly” American Indian and accepted as such within the community. A person with both white and American Indian ancestry was to be recorded as an Indian, unless his American Indian ancestry was small, and he was accepted as white within the community.
Session 4 explored how experiences such as immigration, deportation, and acculturation can affect HIV risk among Latina women. The participants also engaged in role-playing activities that integrated these culturally appropriate themes and were designed to enhance women’s confidence in initiating safer sex conversations, negotiating safer sex, and refusing unsafe sexual encounters. The adapted curriculum was translated into Spanish by a translation services company and was reviewed, modified, back-translated into English, and finally approved by the study team. We then field-tested the adapted curriculum, and Latina community representatives reviewed it before implementation.
Latina Women Firsts
Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are “Hispanic or Latino” and “Not Hispanic or Latino”. However, the practice of separating “race” and “ethnicity” as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are the self-identified categories of race or races and ethnicity chosen by residents, with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether they are of Hispanic or Latino origin .